Tower of London
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The Tower of London, located on the Thames River in central London, was built in the beginning of the 11th century by William the conqueror. The tower is known to be a lasting symbol of the oppression that occurred and overall, was built to enforce the power of the king and ruling elite. The Tower of London is made up of many 21 different towers, covering 18 acres in total. The main tower entrance can be found in the section called Yeoman Wanders.

In Yeoman Wanders, the guards have a dual responsibility of protecting the tower and also of giving guided tours. It is easy to find a guard because they are dressed in historical clothing. Overall, there are approximately forty guards working at a time with one "head" guard acting in the most important position: the Ravenmaster. Ravens have been living in the Yeoman Wanders area for centuries and the Ravenmaster is in charge of keeping the ravens in the tower. King Charles II placed ravens under royal protection. Legend has it that if all of the ravens leave, the kingdom will crumble. In order to ensure the ravens cannot fly away, the Ravenmaster clips the ravens' wings. This inhibits their ability to fly in a straight line for a notable distance.

White Tower is the oldest part of the fortress. It is the most important part of the tower because it is the strongest and most secure part of the castle. It served as a political prison, although this was not its main purpose; however, many people that went there for prison were eventually executed. White Tower was a heavy military site, serving the function of protecting the king from the Londoners. The white tower stands 90 feet tall and has four towers on each corner. Three of the towers are square in shape and the other is circular. These shapes are based on how the stairs were built: the three square towers have a square staircase and the circular tower has a spiral staircase. The circular shaped tower also leads up to an observatory.

The tower also provides housing for many different Crown Jewels, denoting this to be the most famous tourist attraction at the towers. Two of the most famous diamonds in the world are held in this tower.Cullinan diamond, also referred to as the great star of Africa, weighs close to seventeen ounces, thus making it was the heaviest diamond ever found. Kohinoor diamond is the second biggest diamond and in 1937, Queen Elizabeth made a crown out of this diamond. They have been on display since the 17th century duringthe time Charles II was in power. The king’s crown has 2812 diamonds, 297 pearls, and many other jewels which make it weigh over thirty-nine ounces. Many of the jewels date back to the restoration time when many of the crowns were destroyed because of Oliver Cromwell. During the war, soldiers would receive crowns or other jewels so they could pawn them for money. Once people heard about this, they moved the jewels to an underground area so they could be protected. It took many years to replace the jewel that were lost and it cost them close to 2,1176.035 U.S. dollars.

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Cullinan Diamond
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Kohinoor Diamond


The first tour of the tower of London was during the 1660’s to see the crowns. Colonel Thomas Blood and his army tried to steal the crowns in 1671 located in the Martin tower. If you want to see theses crowns, you have to go to the Waterloo Barracks. The jewels have been located there since the 1950’s and the jewel house was made in 1994 and opened by Queen Elizabeth I.


Windsor Castle
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Windsor Castle is an official residence of the queen. It is the largest occupied castle in the world. For over 900 hundred years, it has been a royal home and fortress, covering thirteen acres. It has a dual purpose in that it both provides a home for the queen on the weekend, and also, a Royal residence for formal duties. In the castle they have St George's Chapel, Queen Mary's dolls house, drawing gallery, and state apartments. There are certain guidelines and expectations to follow since it is a royal residence.

The queen takes official residency of the castle in the months of March and April. It is known as the Easter Court when she lives in the castle. She often hosts visits from different political figures such as presidents or monarchs. The queen uses the castle most when over sea leaders come over for state visits.

In the castle, St George's Chapel is open to the public on a daily basis. The chapel is governed by the Dean and Canons of Windsor since it is still part of College of St. George. Many royal weddings have taken place in this chapel as well as important funerals. In fact, Queen Elizabeth’s mother lies buried in the Chapel with her husband, King George VI, and Princess Margaret, her younger daughter.

Everyone that works at the castle or the college of St. George lives in the castle due to security reasons. Consequently, there is less to worry about in regard to something happening to the castle. People can tour the castle and see many of the historic areas.